Symposium 349 - Abstracts


Commission 38 (Exchange of astronomers) and Commission 46 (The teaching of astronomy): two commissions that played a unique role in the history and development of the IAU

Hearnshaw, John

I will trace the founding and development of two commissions of the IAU that played a unique role in IAU history. Commission 38 for the Exchange of astronomers was founded in 1946 with Marcel Minnaert as first president, and it expended funds (initially granted by UNESCO) for astronomers to travel on exchange visits. Commission 46 for the Teaching of astronomy was founded in 1964 with Evry Schatzmann as first president. This was a time of rapidly growing interest in the IAU for teaching astronomy and in due course for promoting astronomy in developing countries. For a while, both commissions operated under the wing of the Executive Committee. Their role was unique as they were the only IAU commissions to have their own budget, as well as aspiring to bring about social change in the astronomical community. By 2000 both commissions merged into C46 (Astronomy education and development) and by that time various programs such as the International School for Young Astronomers (ISYA), the working group World-wide development of astronomy (WWDA) and the working group Teaching astronomy for development (TAD), which grew out of the Visiting lecturers’ program (VLP), were all run by C46. When the IAU established the Office of Astronomy for Development in 2011, many of these functions were removed from the commission and in any case C46 ceased to exist in 2012 when all the old commissions were disestablished. In 2015 the Office for Young Astronomers took over the running of the ISYA.The history of C38 and C46 represents a time of active change in the way the IAU was engaging with people. It was more than just a union for scientific research, but in the world of scientific unions, it was remarkable for taking an active hands-on role in implementing social change.In the history of these two commissions, the Swiss astronomer Edith Müller played a leading dynamic role. She served as president of C46 (1967-73), of C38 (1985-88) as well as IAU General Secretary (1976-79).

IAU in the 21st Century


Beginning in year 2000 the IAU undertook a number of initiatives that changed the Union from being primarily an inward focused organization whose emphasis was the world of professional astronomy to being more outward looking in engaging the public. These initiatives included proposing to the United Nations and then leading the International Year of Astronomy IYA 2009, and the formulation of a Strategic Plan that included creation of the Office of Astronomy for Development. Additional programs are being undertaken by the Union that continue to broaden IAU engagement with the public.

International astronomical cooperation before the IAU

Trimble, Virginia

We could start with "Greeks" in Egypt and Turkey or "Arabs" from India to Spain, but "international" in the sciences and other fields really took off in the long 19th century, with literally hundreds of meetings in Paris, London, Brussels and elsewhere, including the establishment of the Association International des Academies in Wiesbaden in 1899 (22 members by 1914). Astronomy had seen von Zach's celestial police (1800-01); Schumacher's offer to take input for his Astron. Nach. (founded 1821) in any major European language; the Astronomische Gesellschaft (est. 1843 with board members and meeting sites from much of Europe) involving 4 American and 4 other non-German observatories in AGK (1861), setting up the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (1884) and coordinating variable star research (from 1901); Kuiper's Selected Areas (1906); and Carte du Ciel, begun in 1887 with no US participation and declared complete in 1964. Some exchange of information continued through WWI (often through neutral Holland and Denmark), so you can find German variable star data in Nature, an obituary of Moseley in Naturwiss. and Einstein's GR papers 1915-16 reaching de Sitter and on to Eddington. In stark contrast, Transit of Venus (1874, 82) and eclipse (1860 ff) expeditions were nearly all every country for itself, often even every observatory for itself. This changed rather little in the 20th century, and the Eclipse WG of Comm. 12 had remarkably little to say in 1970. By 2003 the WG dealt primarily with education and governmental approval issues. Equipment lost when Freundlich's 1914 Crimean expedition was captured came home in 1923; and there is a Peking 1900-19 story I still want to hear the end of.

"George Ellery Hale's Internationalism"

DeVorkin, David

Here we outline the steps George Ellery Hale took to establish the new “astrophysics” as an international discipline, first through the creation of the Astrophysical Journal, and the need to establish a common language and then through the first decades of the 20th Century when he established international collaborations to coordinate solar and then stellar research. The latter effort, which began in 1904, by 1910 had expanded to encompass stellar astronomy, when the Solar Union deliberated over spectroscopic classification systems, a standard wavelength system and stellar magnitude systems. This work continued through the fifth meeting of the Union in Bonn in 1913, which turned out to be the last due to the First World War. During the war, Hale became Chair of the National Research Council of the American National Academy of Sciences, applying scientific talent to the winning of the war. He was also the Academy's Foreign Secretary, so after the war Hale became deeply involved in the creation of a means to re-establish international scientific relations. That means, designed in conjunction with Arthur Schuster and Emile Picard, became the International Research Council in 1919, which formed the framework within which the worlds of science reorganized themselves, and the International Astronomical Union was born. It was not an easy birth in a world still filled with tension and anger, and formative conferences in London and Brussels reflected the extremes. But born it was and its first General Assembly was held in Rome in 1922. It would be years before it became truly international, "in the complete sense of the word" (Ellis Strömgren), but many of the proposals made during the years of the Solar Union concerning disciplinary standardization were ratified. Here we will concentrate on this latter fact, remembering Hale for his devotion to internationalism.

International School for Young Astronomers (ISYA) since the 60's

Gerbaldi, Michele

The history of the IAU is not simply the story of astronomers working together in a multinational cooperation it is also the history of the internationalization of the astronomy teaching avoiding political interference. During the IAU GA at Hamburg (Germany), in 1964, the foundations for an International School for Young Astronomers (ISYA) were laid, a school dedicated to the students from developing countries. The first one took place in 1967. The context in which the ISYAs developed has changed drastically over the past 50 years. The ISYA started in a period of “mild” Cold War and now we are at the age of the WTO (World Trade Organisation) which shapes the national priorities in term of development in a totally different manner. Besides the ISYA, ideas were blossoming on how to provide contacts between remote places and the main astronomical institutions. Various programmes were created : the Visiting Professors Projects in the 70’s, the Visiting Lecturer Programme in the 80’s and then the Teaching for Astronomy Development (TAD) in the 90’s, all with the aim to increase the cooperation with countries in need of development. We will present the main features upon which the ISYAs were established and how they have evolved with an emphasize on the last 10 years. Two more factors have drived its evolution: the VO (Virtual Observatory) which provides an efficient access to world-wide astronomical data and services, and the access to excellent robotic telescopes during the School providing possibilities of direct observations. The impact of the ISYA programme will be analyzed through the focus on the ISYA participants : their wishes and their achievements. An ISYA is much more than the planning series of lectures: it opens the door to the exchange of ideas across the nation boundaries and not only in the restricted field of astronomy.

The role of IAU Commission 25 in the development of photometric systems

Sterken, Christiaan

From the 1930s on it was suggested that Commission 25 takes responsibility in matters of standard stars, standard filters and standard calibration methods. Commission members expressed the desire that most of the time available to the Commission at the General Assembly should be devoted to some kind of symposium dealing with the matters of standardisation. In the 1950s a concrete proposal was formulated that the IAU should undertake the task of making standard filters generally available, but that suggestion was later withdrawn. This presentation looks back on the opinions of key players in the photometric standardisation debate, and presents some thoughts on the current situation of the standard systems.

Nicolae Donitch – a Pioneer of the International Astronomical Union

Stavinschi, Magda

Romania has joined the IAU from the very beginning. This happened largely thanks to the astronomer Nicholas Donitch (1874-1960). His tortuous destiny was somehow similar to the destiny of many Romanians from Eastern Moldova: he was born in Chisinau, the capital of Bessarabia at that time; he studied in Odessa; later, he became a member of the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, who put him in charge of major astronomical missions; after the first revolution in February 1917 he left Russia and remained in Odessa until the arrival of the Bolsheviks in 1920, who would completely destroy his laboratory; he then moved to his private Observatory in Dubasarii Vechi, which he had set up in 1908, until 1940, when Bessarabia was once again torn away from Romania. He relocated to Bucharest, but soon after, when communists came to power, he would leave the country on a permanent basis. As he severed all the ties with people from the country that had fallen into the red zone of communism, we completely lost track of him. It was only recently that, after thorough research, I could eventuallycome across his work files at CNRS (France) and his death certificate, dating back from 1960. He was passionate about the Sun's physics, having extensively observed many solar eclipses and contributed substantially to the recognition of Romanian astrophysics at the international level. In the present paper, we will try to piece together the life and work of this Romanian scholar. To him I dedicated my book "Nicolae Donitch – A Pioneer of the International Astronomical Union" (in print).

Meghnad Saha: Work, life and times

Kochhar, Rajesh

It is no coincidence that IAU and Saha’s ionization formula are about the same age. Both events are related to World War 1 and connected with Germany though in entirely different ways. Once sufficiently large number of stellar spectra had been obtained and empirically classified according to the Harvard scheme it was inevitable that theoretical explanation would be forthcoming. The only surprise was that the breakthrough came from the far-off Calcutta which was nowhere on the world research map. History chose the hour; the hour produced an unlikely hero: Meghnad Saha. Calcutta University had just become a research centre under Indian auspices. By a fortuitous combination of circumstances immediately after the war, latest German language physics publications arrived in Calcutta as a personal library. While Europe needed time to resume scientific exchanges and activity, India seized the opportunity and produced two outstanding pieces of theoretical work: Saha’s ionization formula (1920), and Bose statistics (1926). It is to the credit of The Royal Society that it elected Saha as a member (1927) in spite of the government’s objections arising from Saha’s anti-British stance. Saha however was unable to carry out further observational and experimental work suggested by the theory. Saha was a multi-faceted personality with strong views on political ideology, role of science in a new nation, and other topics. India’s charismatic Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru during 1947-1964 had a soft corner for sophisticated, suave, upper-crust people. Impatient and angry, confrontational rather than persuasive, Saha did not qualify. Saha is justly regarded as one of the founders of theoretical astrophysics. Examination of his life and work is a rewarding exercise from various points of view: development of modern astronomy; Western science and the non-West; and political and social activism of a leading scientist and educator.

Structuring the IAU: From Commissions to Divisions to Commissions

Montmerle, Thierry

While the IAU was created in the wake of the Versailles Treaty in 1919, its organization and structure had been prepared long before that. "Standing Committees" -the future "Commissions"- gave the IAU its scientific and organizational backbone, and evolved with time. In the early 1990's, Divisions were created, with the main purpose to "amalgamate" the numerous Commissions according to various criteria. Twenty years later, however, it was felt necessary to adapt this Divisions/Commissions structure to the enormous progress  of astronomy made in the mean time, and completely reform first the Divisions, then re-create Commissions (and Working Groups) almost from scratch. I will recall and/or explain the reasons for this reform, which took six years (2009-2015), and helped adapt the IAU to the 21st century.

The IAU, from the World to Exoworlds: recollections of a mandate

Montmerle, Thierry

While the IAU underwent a deep structural reform of interest to its members, it also undertook a number of initiatives towards the public. In parallel with the growth of the Office of Astronomy for Development in Cape Town, and of the Office of Astronomy Outreach in Tokyo, the decade-old International School for Young Astronomers entered a new phase with the creation of an Office for Young Astronomers in Oslo. But a broader public was openly attracted by major astronomical discoveries, in particular by "other worlds": planets and satellites of the solar system, and exoplanets -"exoworlds". The issue of "public naming" of celestial objects became a particularly sensitive one, which triggered a number of actions and reactions by the IAU. They culminated with the first "NameExoWorlds" contest, which attracted half a million votes worldwide and saw its conclusion at the Honolulu GA. A story full of events in the backstage...

Patterns to Scientific Internationalism: What Can a Comparative History of the IAU and the IUPAP Teach Us?

Lalli, Roberto

The IAU was founded on 28 July 1919 as one of the first institutional bodies in the highly politicized context of the post-WWI re-configuration of international scientific cooperation under the umbrella of newly established International Research Council. In many relevant aspects - - including its legal status, its administrative and organizational structure as well as its delicate relation to the political context - - the IAU could provide a model for the International Unions on different disciplines that will be created in the subsequent few years. On the other hand, each scientific discipline had its own traditional ways to conceive of, and implement, cooperation across national boundaries, which were deeply connected to its specific scientific needs. In spite of the common historical background, a bird-eye view at the parallel historical developments of the IAU and the IUPAP shows that they followed diverging trajectories in many respects.In the present paper, I will discuss a conceptual framework for a comparative history of these two international organizations. I will argue that this analysis will allow us address a number of crucial aspects that shaped the activities of these kinds of international scientific institutions through the 20th century. Among these, I will focus especially on the following points: the balance between political contexts and scientific needs; the transformative power of individual actions; the role played by international ideals, and more specifically which kind of internationalism was implicitly or explicitly embodied by the different institutions in different hsitorical contexts; the different relationships with the International Research Council and, later, ICSU; the different ways to address and solve problems connceted to the national and individual memberships; and finally, the different roles of the commissions in shaping the respective fields of enquiry.

The future of the International Schools for Young Astronomers

Aretxaga, Itziar

The 5-decade old ISYA program is evaluated in the context of the experienced gathered in the field: 41 schools organized in 27 countries with a grand total of ~1400 students to date. In the new era of fast internet connectivity, social media, virtual networks, big public surveys and machine learning, the value of face-to-face graduate tuition for regions with limited up-to-date astrophysics research is presented, together with the plan to develop the IAU program into the next decade.

India's Participation in IAU over the Years

Mallik, Dipankar

India was a British colony when the International Astronomical Union was born in 1919. Official matters were channelled through The Royal Society, London, the adhering organization of the United Kingdom to the Union. The total membership from the country was less than 10 until after WW II. In 1946, India formally joined IAU and the National Institute of Sciences of India (NISI) was given the status of the adhering organization. Till the nineteen sixties, the membership grew rather tardily but soon the situation changed what with the exciting new discoveries in astronomy, and its rapid growth in the country. In 1967, M K Vainu Bappu, the then Director of the Kodaikanal Observatory, was elected a Vice-President of the Union. During 1976 -1979, Vainu Bappu was the President of Commission 12. In 1979, he was elected the President of IAU for the triennium 1979-1982 and V Radhakrishnan and Govind Swarup were Presidents during the same period of the Commision 34 (Interstellar Matter and Planetary Nebulae) and Commission 40 (Radio Astronomy) respectively. The membership had shot up to 100. Since then more and more Indian astronomers participated in the activities of the Union and assumed important official roles. In 1985, the General Assembly of the Union was held in New Delhi. The Assembly was dedicated to the memory of Vainu Bappu who had initiated the process of inviting the Union to hold its GA in India.Vainu Bappu had passed away in 1982, on the eve of the General assembly at Patras that he was to preside over. In 1985 too, the first IAU Symposium and IAU Colloquium were held in India. A few years later the Sixth Asia-Pacific Regional IAU Meeting was held in Pune. During the last two decades, the engagement of the Indian astronomers with IAU has grown more and more. Today the membership stands at well over more 200.

The IAU and the Impact Hazard

Rickman, Hans

Almost 30 years have now passed since the risk of an asteroid impact on the Earth with global consequences became a political issue as well as a scientific one. The IAU took an interest in these issues early on, recognising its potential to act as an international advisory body. One of the first initiatives was the formation of the Working Group for Near Earth Objects at the XXIst IAU GA in Buenos Aires 1991. My terms as AGS and GS (1997-2003) coincided with the time that impact risks due to specific asteroids at upcoming encounters with the Earth were first estimated statistically using orbital solutions and integrations. Hand in hand with this came sensationalist writings in news media, and astronomers found themselves in a role as doomsday prophets that they never intended to play. I will briefly summarise my personal impressions of what the IAU was doing in this situation.

Serving Astronomy: the Aim of the IAU

Baneke, David

The IAU was founded in 1919 “to facilitate the relations between astronomers of different countries where international co-operation is necessary or useful” and “to promote the study of astronomy in all its departments.” These aims have led the IAU throughout the century of its existence, but the way it has tried to fulfill them has changed. Johannes Andersen, Claus Madsen and I have tried to trace the changing role of the IAU in the international astronomical community through the twentieth century and into the twenty-first. The IAU has striven – occasionally struggled – to protect international scientific cooperation across the deep political divides that characterized the 20th century, while maintaining an important function in the context of the rapidly evolving science itself and the changing fabric of institutions involved in astronomy. We especially argue how the emphasis of the IAU’s activities has shifted from the first aim – facilitating collaboration by organizing meetings and defining common standards – to the second aim: promoting astronomy by outreach and development programs.

IAU General Secretary 1997-2000

Andersen, Johannes

The IAU is an old house, and each of us arrives with our own toolbox, set of skills, and priorities; after several General Secretaries, the house is hopefully in reasonable shape. The IAU General Secretary is in principle responsible for everything, which takes more time than you have. While some tasks appear more important, surprises (like Pluto in 1999) may occur at any moment. In my case, I’d like to be remembered for four major initiatives during my term: An IAU policy on Near Earth Objects. None existed before; now NEOs are on the UN Agenda. Proper Terms of Reference for the IAU Minor Planet Centre, including an open data policy. Streamlining the IAU education-like activities – the nucleus of the future IAU Strategic Plan. The new collaboration to award the Gruber Cosmology Prize and the Fellowships. Then there’s always housekeeping and IAU books to do, e.g. giving the Secretariat, the Information Bulletin, and the web page (or the Statutes and By-Laws!) a facelift, but those are minor items.

Germany's difficulties in becoming a member of the International Astronomical Union

Wielen, Roland

When the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and its parent organization, the International Research Council (IRC), were founded in 1919, Germany, Austria, Hungary and other nations were excluded from the membership in the IAU for political reasons connected with World War I. These restrictions were abolished only with the revision of the IAU Statutes in 1931. In Germany, the question of an IAU membership was controversially discussed for various reasons: (1) the future role of the also internationally orientated 'Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG)', (2) the equitable use of the German language at international conferences, and (3) the disregard of Germany by the IRC. In 1931, a committee was established in Germany to consider the IAU membership: the 'Ausschuß der Deutschen Astronomen (ADA)'. The ADA concluded that the IAU membership of Germany was desirable, but impossible for financial reasons for the time being. This was announced at the IAU General Assembly in 1932. For the next decade, we do not know of any attempt of Germany to become a member of the IAU. Nevertheless, since 1928, German astronomers participated in the IAU General Assemblies as invited guests and in the work of the IAU Commissions as co-opted members. After World War II, it took a few years until Germany became finally a member of the IAU in 1951. Austria became an IAU member in 1955, Hungary already in 1947. Initially the AG was the adhering organization for Germany at the IAU. In 1962, East Germany became an additional member of the IAU. West Germany's adhering organization was not anymore the AG but had to be replaced by the 'Rat Westdeutscher Sternwarten'. Due to the reunification of Germany in 1990, East Germany disappeared as a separate member of the IAU. Germany is now represented in the IAU by the 'Rat Deutscher Sternwarten (Council of German Observatories)', which is an organ of the AG since 2012.

The IAU C41 Working Groups and their Contribution to International History of Astronomy Research

Orchiston, Wayne

IAU Commission 41 was established in 1948 in order to encourage research in history of astronomy.  During the two decades leading up to the 2015 Hawaiian IAU GA, C41 hosted five Working Groups.  The first of these to be formed was the Archives Working Group, followed by the Historical Instruments, Transits of Venus, Historic Radio Astronomy and Johannes Kepler Working Groups, in that order.In this paper I will trace the history of each of these Working Groups and review the ways in which they contributed internationally to history of astronomy research.

Regional Activities of IAU and Worldwide Astronomy

Kaifu, Norio

I will present some historical analysis of Regional IAU Meetings and efforts of cooperation in East Asia, and discuss the importance of regional coordination toward "Astronomy for All", a future target wich IAU is aiming to.

The IAU and Hazardous Near-Earth Objects - a clear and present danger

van der Hucht, Karel A.

The IAU Minor Planet Center was established in 1947 and has been active ever since. Since 1989, daily CCD surveys of Near Earth Objects at ground-based astronomical observatories are operational, notably in the USA. Presently some 18,000 Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and 107 Near Earth Comets (NECs) are registered and made public on the internet by the MPC, NASA-JPL and ESA-SSA-NEOCC.Concern for impacts of NEOs has been picked-up in 1999 by the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS), where the IAU has observer status.In support of these efforts, the IAU 28th GA in Beijing adopted on 30 August 2012 a Resolution (3B), recommending the establishment of a NEO International Early Warning System, as proposed by the IAU Division III Working Group on Near-Earth Objects.The issue received world-wide attention by the impact on 13 February 2013 over Chelyabinsk (Russia) of a NEA with an estimated size of 17 to 20 meters and an estimated mass of 11,000 tons, releasing an energy of 440 kT TNT at an altitude of ~23 km.Since then, the United Nations General Assembly adopted on 5 December 2014 a Resolution (69/85, 9-10), noting: "… the importance of information-sharing in discovering, monitoring and physically characterizing potentially hazardous near-Earth objects ... ."As of today, while the estimated number of NEAs larger than 40 meter in diameter is about 300,000, only some 14,000 (~ 5 %) have been detected to date. For NEAs with sizes between 40 and 140 meter, the detection percentage amounts to less than 2 % of the estimated number. Only space-based observatories, like the since 2011 planned NASA-JPL NEOCam mission, an  infrared observatory dedicated to operate in Lagrange point L1, will be able to provide an order of magnitude increase of the detection and characterization of Near Earth Objects. We better find them before they find us.

The first president of the IAU, Benjamin Baillaud

Bougeret, Jean-Louis

Benjamin Baillaud was appointed president of the First Executive Committee of the International Astronomical Union which met in Brussels during the Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council (IRC), on July 28th, 1919.  He served in this position until 1922, at the time of the First General Assembly of the IAU which took place in Roma, May 2-10. At that time, Baillaud was director of Paris Observatory. He specialized in celestial mechanics, and he was a strong supporter of the Carte du Ciel project. He also was the founding president of the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH).We will briefly present some of his activities, particularly those concerning international programs and the building of the IAU.

“The sky seems heavy with clouds.” Eddington, the president in WW2.

LAGUENS, Florian

Arthur S. Eddington (1882-1944) certainly was one of the world’s most famous astronomers during the interwar period. For thirty years he was the director of the Cambridge Observatory and taught astrophysics at Trinity College. When the International Astronomical Union was created in 1919, Eddington was chosen to preside over the first commission, devoted to Relativity. During the Cambridge General Assembly (1932) he delivered a series of lectures later published under the title The Expanding Universe. From 1925 to 1928 he was Vice-President of the Union. He was finally elected President at the concluding session of Stockholm General Assembly (1938), but his presidency was suddenly interrupted by his death in November 1944. Obviously, these years were dominated by the Second World War. In his first message as President, Eddington prophesised: “Here we have formed and renewed bands of friendship which will resist the forces of disruption.” Some unpublished letters also reveal what this sentence suggests: Eddington’s major concern for international co-operation.

The next hundred years of the IAU

van Dishoeck, Ewine

The first hundred years of the IAU have witnessed scientific and technological progress in astronomy beyond anything imagined at the time the IAU was constituted in 1919. What will the next hundred years bring? How do we engage with other sciences, now that our field is becoming more multidisciplinary? How do we convince governments to continue funding our field, in particular the ever more powerful telescopes? And how do we inspire and involve people worldwide, from young to old, in our exciting adventure through space?  The IAU 2020-2030 Strategic Plan provides a forward look for the next decade, with specific actions and goals to further the mission of the IAU, which is to promote and safeguard astronomy in all its aspects (including research, communication, education and development) through international cooperation. A brief forward look into the next decadeand beyond will be presented.

Jorge Sahade, First Latin American IAU President

cidale, lydia

Prof. Jorge Sahade (1915-2012) was elected as the first Latin American President of the International Astronomical Union (1985-1988). From then on he had a very active participation as president, vice-president, and organizing committee member of several Commissions and Divissions of the IAU, related to stellar astrophysics and exchange of astronomers.Prof. J. Sahade was born in Argentina and was one of the first students graduated in astronomy at the National University of La Plata, Argentina. He served as director of the Astronomical Observatory of Córdoba (1953-1955) and of the Observatory of La Plata (1968-1969). He was the first dean of the Faculty of Exact Sciences of the National University of La Plata. He promoted the purchase of a 2.15 m diameter telescope, today located in the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. He founded the Institute of Astronomy and Physics of Space (IAFE) in Buenos Aires and was also the first director (1971-1974) of this institution. He was also director of the “Comisión de Actividades Espaciales” (Argentinian Space Agency) and promoted the inclusion of Argentina as a partnership of the Gemini Observatory. Prof. Sahade also focused on the development of the astonomy in Latin American and led to the creation of the Liga Latinoamericana de Astronomía (nowadays LIADA).His passion was astronomy. His research field was interacting binary systems and he published about 200 papers, among them is the well-known discovery of the “Struve-Sahade effect”.I knew him when he was 70 years old as a very enthusiastic astronomer, travelling everywhere to promote the astronomy in Latin American (Argentina, Perú, México, Honduras). Among his last dreams were the creation of a Latin American Institute to bring about the development and enhancement of the astrophysics in South and Central America, the revival of the UV astronomy and many more impressive works that he would have liked to end and publish.

Institutionalizing an astronomical internationalism in the long run: costs and benefits

Saint-Martin, Arnaud

A century of existence: it may seem short on the time-scale of the evolution of the universe, but very consequential to that of a scientific association. The fact that the IAU may be able to celebrate such a milestone is in itself a meritorious collective achievement, for it was not obvious at the very beginning that this organization was going to last more than a decade. Drawing on the historical sociology of scientific institutions, I will discuss in this presentation the mechanisms and processes (scientific, organizational, cultural and ideological) through which the IAU – and its dated but persistent form of scientific internationalism – has stabilized and maintained its identity since its creation in 1919, under the unifying auspices of a global epistemic object to be known: under one sky.

Session 2 Ron Ekers: The Prague GA, Pluto and changes to the statutes,

Ekers, Ron

At the Sydney IAU GA the statutes were modified to remove the votes by individual members.  Few noticed this at the time but the subsequent reaction by disenfranchised members led us to revise this position in Prague.  The need to have a members vote on the status of Pluto was complicated by these changes and the drama behind the scene at the Prague GA where the planet definition was resolved is not well known despite the huge public impact of this GA.   I will describe some of the activities of the executive and its working groups during this very exciting GA.  The IAU structures served us well during this process but of course there were also many lessons learned. 

Publication Changes during the IAU History

Abt, Helmut A.

During the 100 years of the International Astronomical Union, the worldwide astronomical publications have grown exponentially, converted almost entirely to English, and changed format from observatory publications to journals to online publications. Observatory publications have nearly disappeared in usefulness for research.

The China Crisis

Liu, Xiaowei

    The so-called China crisis, well documented in History of the IAU by A. Blaauw and in Under the Same Starry Sky History of the IAU by C.-Q. Fu and S.-H. Ye refers to the withdrawal in 1961 of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from the Union. The crisis stemmed from the admission by IAU, amidst strong protest from PRC and some other member states, Republic of China (ROC) to the Union, creating the so-called “Two Chinas” or “One China, one Taiwan” problem. The crisis directly led to the absence of China mainland astronomers from the stage of international astronomical collaboration and exchange, and was only solved two decades later. The solution, accepted by all the parties involved, is that China is to have two adhering organizations, with China mainland astronomers represented by the Chinese Astronomical Society located in Nanjing (China Nanjing) and China Taiwan astronomers represented by the Academia Sinica located in Taipei (China Taipei). The denominations,  “China Nanjing” and “China Taipei” represent the IAU official resolution and should be used in all IAU events.    The crisis was a painful lesson in the 100-year history of growth and development of the Union. Yet, with its eventual solution, the Union emerged stronger, upholding its spirit of promoting astronomical development through international collaboration of astronomers from all regions and countries, regardless of the political systems, religions, ethnics, genders or astronomical development levels.    The resolution of the crisis, combined with the continuing improvement of relation across the Taiwan Straight, has benefited astronomers on both sides of the Straight, stimulated and facilitated collaborations amongst them as well as with the international community at large. Four decades after the crisis, Chinese astronomy research and education, on both sides of the Straight, are posed to make major contributions to the world astronomy development and to the whole humanity.

Plenary Lecture: 100 years of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Longair, Malcolm

Astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology have changed out of all recognition over the last 100 years. The IAU has provided an essential means of fostering international collaboration including times of international tension. Developments will be highlighted which have profoundly changed our understanding and insight into the workings of our Universe.

On the eve of 100-year anniversary of the IAU Commission 19 "Rotation of the Earth"

Malkin, Zinovy

IAU Commission 19 began in 1919 with the birth of the IAU at the Brussels Conference, where Standing Committee 19 on Latitude Variations was established as one of 32 standing committees. At the first IAU General Assembly in 1922, the Standing Committee became Commission 19 "Variation of Latitude." In the beginning, the main topic of the Commission was investigation of polar motion. Later, its activities included observations and theory of Earth rotation and connections between Earth orientation variations and geophysical phenomena. As a result, in 1964 at the XIIth IAU General Assembly the Commission was renamed "Rotation of the Earth." The investigation of the Earth rotation is primarily based on observations of natural and artificial celestial objects. Therefore, maintenance of the international terrestrial and celestial reference frames, as well as the coordinate transformation between the frames including improvement of the model of precession/nutation have always been among the primary Commission topics. In 1987, the IAU through Commissions 19 and 31 "Time" established, jointly with the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, what is now known as the International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS). Commission 19 continues to work developing methods to improve the accuracy and understanding of Earth orientation variations and related reference systems and frames, as well as theoretical studies of Earth rotation. In 2015, Commission 19 was renewed as Commission A2 "Rotation of the Earth" continuing Commission 19's functions and linking the astronomical community to other scientific organizations such as the International Association of Geodesy, International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), International GNSS Service (IGS), International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), and International DORIS Service (IDS).

Before OAD

Batten, Alan H

OAD, the Office of Astronomy for Development, one of the most significant innovations within the IAU, was instituted at the XXVII General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro in 2009 and opened in South Africa in 2011. The new Office brought together and strengthened several activities of the IAU aimed at helping astronomers in developing or isolated countries to keep in touch with their colleagues elsewhere and up-to-date with the developments in our science. Those activities were mediated through the old commission structure by Commission 38 (Exchange of Astronomers) and Commission 46 (Teaching of Astronomy) which oversaw the International Schools of Young Astronomers (ISYA), the Visiting Lecturer Programme (VLP) and Teaching for Astronomy Development (TAD). In addition, Jorge Sahade, during his term as IAU President (1985-1988), formed the Working Group for the Promotion and Development of Astronomy as a sub-committee of the Executive Committee, and asked the present writer, then a Vice-President, to act as chair. That Working Group (later renamed the Working Group for the Worldwide Development of Astronomy, WGWWDA) operated within the context of the already existing services of the IAU and in cooperation with the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). In this paper, the writer gives an account of the activities of the WGWWDA both during and between General Assemblies, until the year 2000, shortly after which he relinquished responsibility for them.

Under One Sky: Women in Astronomy

Griffin, Elizabeth

Of all the sciences, astronomy is by far the most border-less in its activities, and the most advanced in its concepts of collaborating across borders.  As this talk will outline, today's teams and groups are becoming mature enough to ignore gender differences and ethnic differences, and even across the past 50+ years' of IAU membership which I personally can chalk up, the IAU personnel, Commissions, and other bodies have reflected quite faithfully the same - albeit small-- quotas as found in its memberinstitutions.  There was space for the individual, and if one recalls the contributions by major players like Edith Muller, Giusa Cayrel, Anne Underhill and Charlotte Moore, I think it can be said that astronomy was, and knew it was, better off by giving such people the latitude that they deserved as scientists, rather than because they were women.  When a meeting in Baltimore in 1988 was called to discuss "Women in Astronomy", the pressure came from the younger generations, who feared that the low percentages of tenured women would be allowed to continue in astronomy unnoticed, so they drew up the Baltimore Charter to draw attention to what certainly appeared to some as unfairness.  Even though there could be no quick fixes to the situation, and the winds of change have been more like zephyrs than the cleansing gales that some hoped for, the percentage of women now rising up through the ranks is definitely on the increase, and is enjoying increasing ethnic diversity.  Yes, problems still remain, but no community of skilled humans is perfect.

American Astronomers in Belgium, 1919: A Photo Collection

Lattis, James

The U.S. delegation to the July 1919 International Research Council meeting in Brussels included Joel Stebbins, then professor of astronomy and observatory director at the University of Illinois. He attended as a member of the executive committee appointed by the National Research Council. Stebbins, an avid photographer, documented the travels of their party as the American astronomers attended the meeting and later toured devastated towns, scarred countryside, and battlefields only recently abandoned. Published reports of the meeting afterward attest to the impression left on the American visitors, and the photographs by Stebbins give us a glimpse through their own eyes. These photographs, recently discovered in the University of Wisconsin Archives and never before publicly seen, will be presented along with some commentary on their significance for the International Astronomical Union, which began to take shape at that 1919 meeting.

The IAU and Solar Eclipses

Pasachoff, Jay

The IAU--which, after all, grew out of George Ellery Hale's Solar Union--has long been involved in sponsoring international collaboration and cooperation for expeditions to total solar eclipses. I describe the series of eclipses and of international expeditions and their locations all over the world since the foundation of the IAU 100 years ago. I also describe the current coordination and recent international participation, and discuss changes in eclipse priorities over the century since the IAU was founded. I link the changes in eclipse-observation priorities to advances in ground-based and space-based heliophysics over the last century.

IAU and re-emergence of state-of-art astronomy in Central Asia

Hojaev, Alisher S.

Celebrating the centennial of the IAU we should emphasize its constant and active influence on all aspects of the development of world astronomy, which favorably distinguishes it from professional associations in other fields of science. One could note a lot of undoubted achievements, however, the IAU’s role in promotion and supporting astronomy at regional and local level through international scientific and technological cooperation, the exchange of experts and assistance in the training of relevant specialists should be strengthened and enhanced. Recently, thanks to the great initiatives of the newly elected President of the Republic of Uzbekistan to promote and enhance astronomical research, which has deep ancient traditions and world-class achievements in Uzbekistan, a remarkable breakthrough in the development of astronomy and space sciences, education and their promotion is expected. A park of astronomy and aeronautics, an astronomical boarding school are being created, research has been started to create a 4-meter adaptive mirror telescope with laser correcting system. Together with colleagues of National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC)  astronomers of Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute of Uzbek Academy of Sciences have fully renovated 1 meter Zeiss telescope at Maidanak observatory (Uzbekistan) to the state-of-art  and started deep all-sky survey within international collaboration with NAOC in special SAGE photometric system (developed by astronomers of NAOC). Based on aforesaid the necessary assistance from the IAU and its possible support are described and discussed along the 4 meter telescope creation, the developing of the focal plane instrumentation  and preparation of highly qualified astronomers who will be the local users for the advanced telescope.

International Geophysical Projects and significance of Space and Earth Science to the World

Kolomiyets, Svitlana

The IAU's main objectives are to ensure progress in science and to unite efforts of scientists from different countries in this direction. From the very beginning, astronomy supplied a necessary celestial information for society regarding orientation in the space and time, as well as the structure of the Universe. Both in the history of development of science, and in the IAU centenary history we find gold pages of achievements connected with global interdisciplinary projects covering astronomy, geophysics and space science. Two of them are the International Geophysical Year 1957 (IGY) and the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY). The IAU actively participated in the organization and realization of these projects. There was a specific influence of the IGY project to further development of science. This history page refers to the opening of the space age by launching the first artificial Earth satellite in accordance with the IGY program. The IGY was devoted to solar-terrestrial connections, the study of the solar activity and the Earth's ionosphere. The first scientific results were summed up at the 1958 IAU GA in Moscow. There is the United Nations Report for the IHY 2007 (Thompson et al. 2009). Here we give the information taken from it. The IHY had expanded our concept of “geophysics” into “heliophysics” to embrace other planets, interplanetary space, and the Sun itself. The IHY focused on the cross-disciplinary study of Universal Processes in the Solar system, observed in a variety of settings, providing global measurements of ionospheric and heliospheric phenomena. The efforts of the past half-century after IGY have brought us significant scientific advances, global scientific communication, and an extensive suite of spacecraft and observatories, which some call our “Great Observatory". The IHY program of Education and Public Outreach “Demonstrate the beauty, relevance and significance of Space and Earth Science to the World” was fully implemented.

The "Cart du Ciel" and the Latin American Observatories

Paolantonio, Santiago

The year 2017 was he 130 anniversary of the beginning of the “Carte du Ciel” project, an ambitious proposal from Paris Observatory to mapphotographically the entire sky, which required the joint effort of numerous observatories on the world to be completed. La Carte du Ciel finally became one of the immediate antecedents of the International Astronomical Union, current rector of world astronomy.The proposal to measure the star positions of all the stars up to the magnitude 11 (Astrographic Catalog) and to register each star up to the magnitude 14 (Carte du ciel), involved the record of more than 30,000 photographic plates. This enormous task, had to be distributed between about 20 observatories, each of which took charge of a delimited area in declination. The southern hemisphere was especially problematic, due to the scarcity of astronomical institutions, for this reason all southern observatories were invited. Santiago de Chile, La Plata and Rio de Janeiro accepted the proposal immediately. However, despite having acquired the necessary equipment, for different circumstances none of the three establishments could start the tasks, so these regions were still not completed at the end of the nineteenth century. In 1900, the Argentine National Observatory which initially rejected the invitation, was incorporated into the project,. After 26 uninterrupted years, it was possible to make the necessary plates,perform the tens of thousands of measurements required and the results were published. The other one of the Latin American institutions that participated in the Carte du Ciel, was the Observatory of Tacubaya, Mexico: in this case, the work was done by the middle of the 20th century. In this contribution, we present the characteristics of this fundamental work and the difficulties in carrying out the task.

The history of IAU Symposia

Mickaelian, Areg

The history of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) meetings goes back to 1922 when the IAU General Assembly (GA) I was held in Rome (Italy), following the IAU creation in 1919. However, until 1953, no individual symposia were organized and GA was the only official gathering for astronomers. Altogether, 8 IAU GA were held during 1922-1952. The IAU Symposium 1 on “Co-ordination of Galactic Research” was held on June 17-22, 1953 in Groningen (Netherlands). Starting with 1955, regularly several IAU symposia were held in different places, as well as since 1959 IAU began to also organize colloquia to discuss relatively smaller topics. 20 IAU colloquia numbered as I-XX were held in 1959-1971, and another series of IAU colloquia was organized in 1968-2005, numbered as Nos. 1-200. At present IAU symposia are the only official scientific meetings, 9 of them organized every year. IAU S349 “Under One Sky: the IAU Centenary Symposium” to be held in Vienna during the IAU GA XXX will be the last one by number in 2018. Thus, IAU has a 65-year history of symposia and altogether 349 such meetings have been held, in average 5-6 ones annually. At present most of the IAU symposia during the years of GA are being organized in frame of the GA, typically 6 symposia during each GA. Altogether, 31 IAU GA have been organized during 1922-2018, including 30 regular ones and 1 Extraordinary (1973 in Warsaw, Poland), typically once per 3 years. Since 1974, IAU also organizes regional meetings in Europe, Asia and Pacific (APRIM), Latin America (LARIM), and Middle East and Africa (MEARIM). The European ones were discontinued in 1990 after the creation of the European Astronomical Union (EAS) and organization of the yearly JENAM/ EWASS. The 349 IAU symposia have been organized in 43 countries. We give the statistics of all IAU symposia by years of organization, by various topics of astronomy and astrophysics, and by host countries and cities.

The Spectral Classification of Stars over the last 200, 100, 75 years, and in the future

Corbally, Christopher

This year 2018 has great historical and current significance for stellar spectral classification. Two hundred years ago in Reggio Emilia, Italy, was born Angelo Secchi, a pioneer of observing and classifying the spectra of stars. At the beginning of the IAU, almost a hundred years ago, one of its original Commissions was titled, the Spectral Classification of Stars, from which was generated Commission 45, Spectral Classification and Multi-band Colour Indices. And seventy-five years ago, was published the “system-changing” MKK, An Atlas of Stellar Spectra. Through this historical view we shall recall how spectral classification, supported internationally by the IAU, continually updated its techniques, while remaining anchored to standards. This has ensured that the MK classification process stays very relevant to the initial characterizing of stars in the 21st century era of large spectral surveys.

Look Back and Look Forward, the Growth of Astronomy in Japan

Hayashi, Saeko

“What is happening up there? What is the mechanism that governs the formation of stars and planets? I want to study astronomy,” says a girl in a country-side. “by building a large telescope,” she continues. If the first sentence was not a surprise, surely the second one was unheard of half a century ago in a country far far away in the east. Let alone building such a facility outside of the country.Astronomy in Japan has long history and has its own “light.” Proudly I could say the foresight of leaders in early 20-th century helped Japan to be a founding member of the International Astronomical Union.  In this presentation, I would like to show the growth in its more recent history with particular emphasis on two important issues: large research facilities and women participation. Ground based or air-/space-born, the large facilities are nowadays outside of the land of Japan, not only in terms of physical presence but also the community they serve. Domestic membership at the same time is expanding thanks to the increased opportunities for women.How do we go further? Make connections amongst people on this planet. What works in the collaboration or inclusion? Think globally (universally) and act locally.Designation of 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy prompted the start-up or scaling-up of many good programs in astronomy outreach, especially in the life-long learnings and informal educations. In the discussion I will focus on two very successful and promising areas I encountered during this decade. Training next generation leaders was one key component for global connections. Whether going abroad or stay in the home country, astronomy researchers cannot stay away from the international collaborations. Starting small and young in their local communities was the other. In this way, the program can stay sustainable. By applying these two strategies in my home country, I hope to promote the progress of astronomy and its relevance in the community.

The IAU and French women astronomers


Very soon after the creation, in 1919, of the IAU, in Bruxelles, following -by a few days only- the birth of the Conseil international des recherches (International Research Council) under the presidency of Benjamin Baillaud (1848-1932), the first Assemblée générale was held in Roma in 1922. More than two hundred members were there and two ladies were mentionned, Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921) and Fiammeta (1864-1920) Wilson (born Worthigton), as dead. This means that, even not so much in the IAU, female were already among the participants (members and guests). Two other ladies were present : miss Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941) from Harvard College (US) and Dorothea Klumpke (1861-1942) widow of Isaac Roberts (1829-1904) as a French representative with her address in Thomery near Paris. Three years later, in 1925, three women appeared among members and guest and, in 1928, they are five, etc. Their increasing number followed the augmentation of total members of the IAU being almost 10 500 in 2017, that is to say about 17% of the total. In 1989, the author was asked to publish a paper on  Astronomy, Geophysics and Women presented at the meeting Advances in Geosciences. Several other communications were later published. Others followed, developping aspects, related to women, corresponding mostly to astronomical activities. As an exemple, statistical studies about percentage of female astronomers for all adhering countries to IAU in 1991, later for France and Italy, etc. After recalling the corresponding evolution for adhering countries, a new examination of the situation, after about a new quarter of a century, will be developped.

Historical Telescopes and Astronomy Outreach

Figueiró Spinelli, Patrícia

The Night-Sky Observation Program (POC, acronym in Portuguese for Programa de Observação do Céu) is the most traditional education activity run by the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences (MAST) in Rio de Janeiro, with an annual participation of 2,400 people. It starts with a brief talk and is followed by the observation with MAST's telescopes, one of them being over a century old. Data collected from POC’s evaluation research in 2015 pointed that its participants perceive the historical value of the old refractor and declare that the activity brought them feelings of wonderment. These declarations have motivated us to conduct a study to identify and exchange experiences with worldwide institutions that also use historically valuable telescopes in their night-sky observation activities with the public. With the goal of gathering information from these places and making it into a guide, an online questionnaire with open and close-ended questions was launched in late 2017. We define what the respondents understand as a “historically valuable instrument” by using the Likert scale. We have received 80 responses of institutions from all continents. The information collected is vast and rich and not only tells about the passion of those mediating such activities, but also the history of astronomy itself. The majority of the respondents has described that the participants of the activities experience similar feelings towards the instrument as those found in POC's research. In addition, we have found that only half of the instruments has been classified or considered as an object of cultural heritage, which is a source of concern. In this contribution, I will present the main results of our survey and introduce our guide.

Italian Astronomers@IAU. The contribution and the role of the Italian astronomers inside IAU from the foundation to the Second World War

Zanini, Valeria

The Italian astronomers were involved in the birth of the IAU as early as 1919, but Italy joined officially at the Astronomical Union only in 1921. Astronomers from all over the world met in Brussels for the first time on July 1919 and Annibale Riccò, the Director of Catania Observatory, was appointed Vice-President of the Executive Committee on that occasion. During the conference, Riccò invited the IAU Committee to hold its first General Assembly in Rome, the native country of Galileo Galilei and Angelo Secchi, the pioneer of the Astrophysics. Unfortunately Riccò didn’t see realized his desire, because of his unexpected death; his role was entrusted to Antonio Abetti, Director of the Florence Observatory. After him Vittorio Cerulli of the Teramo Observatory, Giorgio Abetti, son of Antonio and his successor at the direction of Florence Observatory, and Emilio Bianchi, Director of Brera Observatory, were appointed at the same office until 1952 continuously. In this year the VIIIth IAU General Assembly was held in Italy, thirty years after the first one and in the same place: Rome.This presentation will analyze the contribution and the role of Italian astronomers to the development of the International Astronomical Union until the Second World War. The recent project of reordering of the Italian astronomical historical archives permits a more in-depth study of the relations between Italian astronomers and a wider international scientific context.

The Role of the IAU Gleaned from Oral Histories of Individuals Involved in Astronomy in South Africa

Leeuw, Lerothodi

In light of the IAU Centenary Symposium, we will use selected data from our on-going project on oral histories of individuals involved in astronomy in South Africa to probe the role of the IAU in careers of the participants of the project and also in astronomy in South Africa in general. The project is to conduct, archive and showcase the recording of histories of individuals involved in astronomy in South Africa; and, in it we will include specific questions that help us learn about the role of the IAU in careers of the participants of the projects and also in astronomy in South Africa in general. The work provides an opportunity to elucidate not only the role of the IAU itself but also other professional bodies in scientific careers, innovation and development of individuals and their broader scientific and civic communities.

IAU’s interaction with young astronomers

Engvold, Oddbjorn

The International Astronomical Union supports several educational programs for young astronomers and events aimed to strengthen interaction between younger and more senior astronomers. The latter is represented by the Young Astronomers Luncheons that have become a tradition in recent IAU General Assemblies. The more far-reaching educational programs are the International Schools for Young Astronomers (ISYAs) for a 3-week school in developing countries and Commission 46 Astronomy Education Development (TAD) programs of shorter duration, where both initiated in 1967. The ISYAs aim to strengthen existing astronomical education in host countries while the objectives of the TAD programs are to enhance and improve the astronomy and science education in countries where that may be wanted. The objective of this brief presentation is to focus on mutually beneficial aspects of the strengthened contacts and interactions between the students, their host institution and the involved international milieus in astronomy.The IAU Educational Programs are described in two articles written by Michele Gerbaldi and by Michele Gerbaldi, Jean-Pierre DeGreve and Edward Guinan that are available from the IAU ISYA web site.

A history of IAU Commission C1: a look from the Newsletters

Bretones, Paulo

This work aims to present the partial results of a project to get all the issues of the Newsletters of Com. C1 (Astronomy Education and Development), formerly named Com. 46. The sources and the (hard) work to obtain printed editions, digitalize and make them available on the Internet are shown. Along 40 years, 86 issues from 1977 until 2017 were published. The structure of the Commission in the covers listed the names of presidents, vice-presidents, organizing committee, editors, printing and distribution responsible with editorial and presidential letters. A preliminary analysis of contents of the published material is done. The results present the main subjects of stories that were related to papers, teaching materials, book reviews, courses and meetings. Many solar eclipses and other phenomena were reported. Reports of important projects of the commission were published such as: International Schools for Young Astronomers (ISYAs), the travelling telescope among others WGs projects. Stories of travels, triennial reports from many countries were continuously published presenting many actions and activities for all school levels, non-school activities as planetariums and many astronomy subjects. Reports of the education sessions and business meetings held during the IAU GAs and projects in developing countries complemented these publications. Occasionally, papers dealing with great questions and subjects can be found, such as: why astronomy is useful?; why astronomy should be taught in schools?; computing in education; student cognition and effective astronomy instruction. There are many published contributions that show the participation of many members from many countries and the efforts to improve the astronomy education through the world. The surveyed material can be very useful for next generations of astronomy education researchers, practitioners and teachers not only as a repository of historic documents, but also as an inspiration for future projects.

XXX IAU General Assembly | ACV - Austria Center Vienna  | Bruno-Kreisky-Platz 1  | 1220 Vienna